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    Theoretical DPSS Crystal Wavelengths

    Actual and theoretically possible SHG wavelengths: http://tinyurl.com/ZRaffleticket

    This file can be downloaded through the above link and was provided to me by LPF member ZRaffleticket over a year ago for use on my own site.
    Attached Files

    #2
    Here's something interesting I found on the net: http://www.photon.ac.cn/article/2015...-2-214003.html


    Click image for larger version  Name:	Dual Twisted.png Views:	0 Size:	18.1 KB ID:	619

    Fig.2 Two-Dual-Frequency cavity Nd: YAG Laser the using Twisted-MODE torsional modulus dual lumen structure of Nd: YAG laser

    In order to produce the dual-frequency laser with tunable frequency-difference at 1 064 nm, a two-cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser was designed using a twisted-mode configuration, the two standing-wave cavities of which share the same gain medium Nd:YAG, and the twisted-mode configuration reduced or even eliminated the spatial hole-burning effect of gain so that the single longitudinal mode can be oscillated in both standing-wave cavities of the Nd:YAG laser, thus the orthogonally and linearly polarized dual-frequency laser at 1 064 nm was obtained. The principles of both single longitudinal mode selection of the twisted-mode configuration and the simultaneous oscillation of the dual-frequency laser were theoretically analyzed, and the characteristics of dual-frequency laser oscillation and frequency difference tuning were investigated experimentally. The experimental results show that both cavities of the Nd:YAG laser can steadily oscillate in linearly polarized single longitudinal mode, and the frequency-difference can be tuned up to one longitudinal mode interval by changing the cavity length, the frequency-difference tuning range is 0.3 GHz to 3 GHz.

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    The whole page translated into English:
    Cite this article
    Xing Junhong, Jiao Mingxing.
    Dual-cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG Laser with a twisted mode structure. 2015, 44(2): 214003-214008 XING Jun-hong, JIAO Ming-xing. Two-cavity Dual-frequency Nd:YAG Laser with a Twisted -mode Configuration. ACTA PHOTONICA JOURNAL, 2015, 44(2): 214003-214008

    PermissionsCopyright©2015, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of SciencesXi'an Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences reserves all rights


    Dual-cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser with torsion mode structure

    Xing Junhong , Jiao Mingxing
    Department of Precision Instrument, School of Mechanical and Precision Instrument Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China

    Supervisor (corresponding author): Jiao Mingxing (1962-), male, professor, Ph.D., the main research direction is all solid-state laser technology and devices, laser sensing and measurement technology. Email: [email protected]Author: Xing Jun Hong (1978-), female, lecturer, Ph.D., principal research interests include laser technology and devices .Email: [email protected]
    Received Date: 2014-09-19fund:Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51175421, 61205135), Shaanxi Provincial Science and Technology Plan (No.2011K09-14), and Shaanxi Provincial Department of Education Industrialization Cultivation Project (No.2010JC12)


    SummaryIn order to generate a frequency difference tunable 1 064 nm dual-frequency laser output, a dual-cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser with a torsion mode structure is designed, and its two standing wave resonators share the same Nd:YAG gain medium to achieve a torsion mode structure. The gain space hole burning effect is weakened, so that the two standing wave cavities of the Nd:YAG laser are oscillated in a single longitudinal mode, so as to obtain an orthogonal linear polarization 1 064 nm dual-frequency laser output. Theoretical analysis of the torsion mode structure laser single longitudinal mode Select the principle and the principle of dual-frequency laser simultaneous oscillation, and experimentally study the dual-frequency laser oscillation characteristics and frequency difference tuning characteristics. The research results show that the two resonant cavities of the dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser can simultaneously oscillate with linear polarization and single longitudinal mode. , The frequency difference can be tuned with the change of the laser cavity length, the frequency difference tuning range can reach 1 longitudinal mode interval, and the frequency difference tuning range observed in the experiment is 0.3 GHz ~ 3 GHz.


    Keywords : dual-frequency laser ; Nd:YAG laser ; torsion mode ; single longitudinal mode selection ; frequency difference tuning
    Chinese Library Classification Number: TN248; TN242 Document Marking Code: A Article Number: 1004-4213 (2015) 02-0214003-6Two-cavity Dual-frequency Nd:YAG Laser with a Twisted-mode Configuration

    XING Jun-hong , JIAO Ming-xing
    Department of Precision Instruments, School of Mechanical and Instrumental Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China



    AbstractIn order to produce the dual-frequency laser with tunable frequency-difference at 1 064 nm, a two-cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser was designed using a twisted-mode configuration, the two standing-wave cavities of which share the same gain medium Nd:YAG, and the twisted-mode configuration reduced or even eliminated the spatial hole-burning effect of gain so that the single longitudinal mode can be oscillated in both standing-wave cavities of the Nd:YAG laser, thus the orthogonally and linearly polarized dual-frequency laser at 1 064 nm was obtained. The principles of both single longitudinal mode selection of the twisted-mode configuration and the simultaneous oscillation of the dual-frequency laser were theoretically analyzed,and the characteristics of dual-frequency laser oscillation and frequency difference tuning were investigated experimentally. The experimental results show that both cavities of the Nd:YAG laser can steadily oscillate in linearly polarized single longitudinal mode, and the frequency-difference can be tuned up to one longitudinal mode interval by changing the cavity length, the frequency-difference tuning range is 0.3 GHz to 3 GHz.


    Keyword : Dual-frequency laser ; Nd:YAG laser ; Twisted-mode ; Single longitudinal mode selection ; Frequency-difference tuning



    0 PrefaceAll-solid-state dual-frequency lasers have a series of advantages such as small size, high efficiency, low noise, good monochromaticity and high output power, so they are widely used in laser interferometry, laser sensing, terahertz wave generation and lidar detection, etc. The field has become one of the important research directions in the current frontier field of laser technology. The method of solid-state lasers to generate dual frequencies is to use birefringence or polarization effects to split single longitudinal mode lasers while ensuring the laser's single longitudinal mode operation. In order to obtain orthogonal linear polarization dual-frequency laser output [ 1 ] . Among them, the selection methods of laser single longitudinal mode mainly include birefringent filter method [ 2 , 3 ] , etalon method [ 4 ] , short cavity method [ 5 ] , Torsion mode cavity method [ 6 ] and ring traveling wave cavity method [ 7 , 8 ], etc., the torsion mode cavity single longitudinal mode laser can effectively reduce the spatial hole burning effect of the gain, and obtain a larger single longitudinal mode laser output power, and The laser structure is easy to integrate and is conducive to frequency stability. The earliest torsion mode cavity was proposed by Asiegman et al. [ 9 ] in 1965. Since then, the technology has been continuously developed and a series of important research results have been obtained [ 10 , 11, 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ] . In 1994, Lin Yueming of Shanghai Institute of Optics and Mechanics and others [ 17 ] realized single-frequency operation of LD-pumped continuous wave Nd:YAG laser with torsion mode cavity; 1999, Zhao Changming , Beijing Institute of Technology, etc. [ 18 ] A dual-frequency laser oscillation output is realized by using a finely offset torsion cavity.
    Based on the analysis of the principle of torsion mode cavity mode selection, this paper uses the light splitting characteristics of Polarizing Beam Splitter Prism (PBSP) to divide the laser resonant cavity into a linear standing wave cavity and a right angle standing wave cavity, and a torsion mode is designed. The structure of the dual-cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser, the two standing wave cavities share the same Nd:YAG gain medium, so as to achieve the simultaneous oscillation output of the orthogonal linearly polarized dual-frequency laser, and by changing the cavity length of the two standing wave cavities, you can Tuning the size of the frequency difference of the dual-frequency laser, the frequency difference tuning range is up to 1 longitudinal mode interval.


    1 Principle of torsion cavity selectionTorsion cavity single frequency Nd: YAG laser system as in FIG. 1 , assuming x direction parallel to the paper, Y direction perpendicular to the plane, the resonator axis is z -axis in M. 1 and M 2 of Nd consisting of two mirrors: A polarizer P is placed in the YAG laser resonator, and a λ/ 4 wave plate QWP 1 and QWP 2 are placed at each end of the Nd:YAG gain medium . The fast axis (slow axis) is perpendicular to each other [ 8 ] , and QWP 1 The fast axis of the polarizer P forms a 45° angle with the polarization direction of the polarizer P to form a twisted cavity. The polarization direction of the polarizer P is parallel to the x direction. The light oscillates in the cavity, and first passes through the polarizer P to vibrate along the x direction. Linearly polarized light, that is, vertical linearly polarized light, whose Jones vector is
    E 1 =E 0 e i kz
    [01]01


    (1)
    In the formula, k = , λ is the wavelength of the oscillating laser. It is known that the Jones matrix of the λ/ 4 waveplate placed at 45° with the fast axis and the x axis is
    E . 1 / . 4 =
    12[1II1]121-i-i1


    (2)
    FIG torsion cavity single-frequency Nd: YAG laser system Fig.1 Single Frequency Nd: YAG Laser cavity the using A Twisted-MODE
    Then after the vertically linearly polarized light passes through the λ /4 wave plate QWP 1 , its Jones vector is
    E 2 =E 0 e -i kz
    12[1II1][01]121-i-i101


    =
    1212


    E 0 e -i kz
    [I1]-i1


    =
    1212


    E 0 e -i( kz+π / 2)
    [1i]1i


    (3)
    It can be seen from equation (3) that the vertically linearly polarized light becomes left-handed circularly polarized light after passing through QWP 1. When the light passes through the λ/ 4 wave plate QWP 2 , its Jones vector is expressed as
    E 3 =
    1212


    E 0 e -i( kz+ π /2)
    12[1II1][1i]121-i-i11i


    = E 0 e -i( kz+ π /2)
    [10]10


    (4)
    That is, the left-handed circularly polarized light becomes horizontal linearly polarized light. The polarization direction of the visible linearly polarized light and the polarization direction of the linearly polarized light incident on the QWP 1 are perpendicular to each other.
    The light is reflected by the cavity mirror M 2 and then passes through the λ/ 4 wave plate QWP 2 again . At this time, its Jones vector is expressed as
    E 4 =E 0 e -i(2 kl-kz- π /2)
    12[1II1][10]121-i-i110


    =
    1212


    E 0 e -i(2 kl-kz- π /2)
    [1I]1-i


    (5)
    In the formula, l is the optical length of the resonant cavity. It can be seen that the horizontal linearly polarized light becomes right-handed circularly polarized light, that is, there are two circular polarizations with opposite propagation directions and opposite rotation directions in the gain medium Nd:YAG Light. After superimposing the electric fields E 2 and E 4 , we can get
    E 5 =
    1212


    E 0
    [eI ( k z + π/ 2 )+eI ( 2 k lk zπ/ 2 )eI k z+eI ( 2 k lk zπ)]e-i(kz+π/2)+e-i2kl-kz-π/2)e-ikz+e-i2kl-kz-π)


    (6)
    It can be seen that the phase relationship of the circularly polarized light with the opposite propagation direction and the opposite rotation direction in any cross-section of the crystal is determined, that is, superimposed into a linearly polarized light with a definite direction. At the same time, the polarization direction of the linearly polarized light in different cross-sections of the crystal is determined. One rotation at λ, the shape of the light field is like a twist, so it is called a torsion mode.
    From equation (6), the distribution of light intensity in gain medium Nd:YAG can be obtained as
    I=
    E2xEx2


    +
    E2yEy2


    =4
    e20e02


    e -2i kl (7)
    It can be seen that the expression of the light intensity I in the gain medium does not contain the position coordinate z , that is to say , the spatial distribution of the light intensity I is independent of the position z . In this way, a standing wave field with uniform energy distribution is formed in the laser gain medium If different longitudinal modes have to gain gain in the same area, they will compete against each other, that is, eliminate the spatial hole burning effect, so as to ensure the uniformly widened Nd:YAG laser output with single longitudinal mode oscillation
    [ 9 ] .


    2 Dual-cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser with torsion mode structure2.1 The composition of the laser systemBased on a dual lumen configuration of torsional mode Nd: YAG laser as in FIG. 2 from the semiconductor laser diode (LD) pigtail OF 808nm emitted from the pumping light is converged and incident on the focusing lens GL to the Nd: YAG crystal of the left end face, A λ /4 wave plate QWP 1 and QWP 2 are placed at both ends of the Nd:YAG crystal. The fast axes of QWP 1 and QWP 2 are perpendicular to each other, and the fast axis of QWP 1 is connected to the P light transmission axis and s light of PBS 1 The angle of the transmission axis is 45° . The left end of QWP 1 is coated with a two-color dielectric film that is highly reflective to the 1 064 nm oscillating laser and anti-reflection to the 808 nm pump light, which serves as the rear reflector of the laser cavity. focus lens in the optical axis of the QWP GL 2 is placed on the right side of the PBS PBS sequentially 1 and the output coupler mirror -OC 1 , in PBS 1 the direction of the reflected light output coupling mirror placed -OC 2 . such QWP1 output coupled to a left end surface of the dielectric film Mirror OC 1 constitutes a linear standing wave cavity, and OC 2 constitutes a right angle standing wave cavity. In order to reduce the cavity loss, the right end face of QWP 1 , QWP 2 and PBS1 the two end faces are coated with AR coating 1 064 nm.
    It can be seen from Figure 2 that QWP 1 , QWP 2 and PBS 1 form a torsion mode structure, which can eliminate the spatial hole burning effect of gain. The linear cavity and the right-angle cavity of the laser share the Nd:YAG laser medium and the torsion mode structure, and both can be linearly polarized Single longitudinal mode oscillation output. The two lasers are combined by PBS 2 after reflecting mirrors M 1 and M 2 to realize the coaxial output of the orthogonal polarization dual-frequency laser of 1 064 nm. The output coupling mirrors OC 1 and OC 2 are respectively bonded in the piezoelectric ceramic the PZT . 1 and the PZT 2 , the piezoelectric ceramic when the change the PZT . 1 and the PZT 2 voltage, the linear cavity and the cavity at right angles to the cavity length changes, dual-frequency laser may be tuned to the frequency difference.
    FIG 2 torsional modulus dual lumen structure of Nd: YAG laser Fig.2 Two-Dual-Frequency cavity Nd: YAG Laser the using Twisted-MODE The Configuration
    2.2 Principle of dual-frequency laser simultaneous oscillationSince FIG. 2 in a laser resonator having two standing waves, there is two sets of longitudinal mode frequency comb, as FIG. 3 (A), in which q and q ' are respectively a longitudinal cavity and a straight line at right angles to the mold cavity ordinal torsion The cavity eliminates the gain hole burning effect in the laser medium space. The result of the competition between different longitudinal modes is that the longitudinal mode close to the center frequency ν 0 of the gain curve wins and forms the laser oscillation. It can be seen from Figure 3 that the linear cavity and the right-angle cavity have priority The single longitudinal modes that start to oscillate are ν q and ν q' , respectively . The other longitudinal modes are far away from the center frequency ν 0 , and the gain obtained is small and cannot be oscillated. Therefore, this torsion mode structure dual cavity Nd:YAG laser can be used dual orthogonal linear polarization to achieve laser output, as in FIG. 3 (B).
    FIG 3 frequency laser oscillation schematic Fig.3 Oscillation Principle of Dual-Frequency Laser
    2.3 Principle of Frequency Difference TuningAccording to the laser principle, the laser frequency will move by a longitudinal mode interval every time the length of the laser optical cavity changes by half a wavelength. Therefore, when the voltage applied to the PZT is changed to fine-tune the cavity length, the resonance of the linear cavity and the right-angle cavity can be tuned frequency.
    Suppose the linear cavity and at right angles to the cavity longitudinal mode interval equal to [Delta] v Q and [Delta] v Q ' ; initially v Q = v Q' = v 0 , as in FIG. 4 (A), the section 2.2 analysis shows, v Q and v q ' priority vibrating, i.e. at right angles to the resonance frequency of the linear cavity and the cavity respectively v Q and v q' , the frequency difference is zero, at a frequency degenerate state, as in FIG. 4 (B). by increasing the cavity length of the linear cavity the v Q moving (frequency becomes smaller) on the frequency axis to the left; the same time, by reducing the cavity length of the cavity at right angles to the v Q ' moving (frequency increases) to the right on the frequency axis, such dual frequency laser light difference gradually increases. when v Q moves to the left along the frequency axis [Delta] v Q / 2, v Q ' moves to the right on the frequency axis [Delta]v Q ' / 2, as in FIG. 4 (C), the difference between the frequency of the maximum frequency laser (referred to as [Delta] v max ), as in FIG. 4 (D). As further two tuned resonator cavity length, the two chambers Mode hopping will occur and the frequency difference will be reduced. It can be seen that the minimum frequency difference of this dual-cavity dual-frequency laser is zero, and the maximum frequency difference Δ ν max is (Δ ν qν q' )/2.
    4 FIG frequency difference TUNING Fig.4 the Tuning Frequency Principle of -difference
    3 Experimental research and result analysisLD-pumped dual-lumen 1 064 nm Nd: YAG laser as the experimental system of FIG. 2 .LD a maximum optical power of 2W; self focusing lens GL pitch is 1/4, sizes of [Phi] 2.6 mm × 6.5 mm; Two 1 064 nm λ /4 wave plates QWP 1 and QWP 2 are quartz wave plates , each with a diameter of 10 mm, and the left end of QWP 1 is coated with 808 nm antireflection film ( T > 95%) and 1 064 high reflective film (Reflectivity R > 99.5%), one side of the cavity (that is, the right end surface) is coated with 808 nm and 1 064 nm two-color antireflection dielectric coating (transmittance T > 95%), and both the pass light surfaces of the wave plate QWP 2 are coated with 1 064 nm antireflection dielectric coating (transmittance T > 99.5%); the size of the Nd:YAG crystal is 3 mm × 3 mm × 5.5 mm, its light-through length is 5.5 mm, the atomic doping concentration is 1.1%, and its left end The surface is plated with high transmission to 808 nm ( T > 95%) and total reflection at 1 064 nm ( R> 99.8%) two-color dielectric film, the right end surface of which is coated with a dielectric film that is anti-reflection to 1 064 nm; the size of PBS is 5 mm × 5 mm × 5 mm, and its transmittance to p light and reflectance to s light are respectively 95% and 99.9%; The diameter of the output coupling mirror OC is 10 mm, the radius of curvature of the spherical surface is 100 mm, and the spherical surface is coated with a dielectric film with a transmittance of 3.6% to 1 064 nm. The optical length of the linear cavity and the right-angle cavity are about approximately It is 50 mm, and the corresponding longitudinal mode spacing is 3 GHz.
    3.1 Single cavity single frequency laser oscillation characteristicsIn FIG. 2 the laser system shown in -OC 2 with PBS . 1 is inserted into a light shielding plate between the right angle to the laser oscillation suppression chamber, so that only the vibrating linear cavity longitudinal mode. Similarly, the -OC . 1 and PBS . 1 between the A light barrier is inserted to suppress the laser oscillation of the linear cavity, and only the longitudinal mode of the linear cavity is vibrated. When the two cavities oscillate separately, the experimentally measured threshold pump power of the linear cavity and the rectangular cavity are 190 mW and 140 mW, respectively. When the end pump power of the Nd:YAG crystal is 850 mW, the output power of the linear cavity and the right-angle cavity are 62 mW and 75 mW, respectively. It can be seen that the output power of the right-angle cavity is greater than the output power of the linear cavity, and its threshold pump power is also small This is mainly due to the fact that the reflectivity of PBS 1 to s light is greater than the transmittance of p light in the cavity .
    Experimental use of the free spectral range of 3.75 GHz confocal observation scanning interferometer mode spectrum of the laser oscillation. Oscillatory linear cavity mold cavity and the right angle spectrum as in FIG. 5 shown, it can be seen, and a straight line at right angles to the chamber cavity single longitudinal mode are The oscillation output indicates that the torsion mode cavity has an effective laser longitudinal mode selection ability.
    FIG 5 laser oscillation mode spectrum Fig.5 for Oscillating pattern MODE
    3.2 Research on simultaneous oscillation characteristics of dual-cavity dual-frequency laserAs in FIG. 2 torsional mode frequency-doubled Nd double lumen structure shown: YAG laser systems, when the QWP . 1 and the QWP 2 fast axes perpendicular to each other, and the QWP . 1 the fast axis of the PBS . 1 P s and the light transmittance of the optical axis When the angle of the transmission axis is 45°, the dual cavity can be simultaneously output in the fundamental transverse mode and single longitudinal mode. When the end pump power of the Nd:YAG crystal is 850mW, the total output power of the linear cavity and the right angle cavity is 53 mW. It can be seen that the output power of the simultaneous oscillation of the two cavities is less than the output power of the single cavity oscillation, because the loss of the two cavities is greater than the loss of the single cavity.
    3.2.1 Frequency difference tuning characteristics
    In the case of dual cavities oscillating in fundamental transverse mode and single longitudinal mode at the same time, the single longitudinal mode laser output from the linear cavity and the right angle cavity is simultaneously coupled into the confocal scanning interferometer, and the laser mode spectrum when the dual cavities are simultaneously oscillated can be measured. as FIG. 6 , the two can be seen that the resonant cavity are indeed single longitudinal mode oscillation. when the output coupling mirror, respectively -OC . 1 and -OC 2 back when the shutter into the confocal scanning laser interferometer with a light shielding plate, the laser can be distinguished P light and s light on the spectrogram.
    FIG 6 frequency laser oscillation mode spectrum in Fig.6 for Oscillating MODE pattern of Dual-Frequency Laser
    Adjust the voltage of PZT 1 so that the mode spectrum of the laser output from the linear cavity drifts to the left on the frequency axis, and at the same time change the voltage on PZT 2 , so that the mode spectrum of the laser output from the rectangular cavity drifts to the right on the frequency axis, resulting in a dual frequency the laser frequency difference increases, as in FIG. 6 (B), trimming described two resonator cavity length tuning frequency and indeed the frequency of the difference frequency laser size. on this basis, if more further cavity length tuning, the two The oscillating laser in the cavity will undergo mode hopping, so that the frequency difference will be reduced. The experimentally observed dual-frequency laser frequency difference tuning range is 0.3 GHz ~ 3 GHz, the minimum frequency difference is close to 0, and the maximum frequency difference is approximately equal to a straight line The sum of half of the cavity longitudinal mode interval and half of the rectangular cavity longitudinal mode interval. It can be seen that the experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis in section 2.3.
    3.2.2 Polarization characteristics
    In order to check the polarization state of the laser output laser, the Glan-Taylor prism is placed on a precision rotating table, and the Glan prism is rotated in a plane perpendicular to the optical axis of the laser. Figure 7 shows the change of the laser transmittance with the rotation angle of the Glan prism It can be seen that the power of the linear cavity through the Glan prism changes sinusoidally with the angle of rotation, while the power of the right-angle cavity through the Glan prism changes with the cosine law of the angle, and the period is 180°, which conforms to Marius' law. , Indicating that the 1 064 nm single-frequency laser output from the linear cavity and the right-angle cavity are linearly polarized light, and they are p-light and s-light with orthogonal polarization directions.
    7 laser transmittance relationship with Glan prism angle Fig.7 Dependence of Transmission of Laser ON The rotation angle of Glan Prism
    4 ConclusionBased on the analysis of the principle of torsion mode cavity mode selection, this paper uses PBS as the light splitting and polarizing element to design a dual cavity dual frequency Nd:YAG laser with a torsion mode structure. Its two resonators share the same laser gain medium. At the same time, the output is oscillated in a linear polarization single longitudinal mode. By changing the laser cavity length, the frequency difference of the dual-frequency laser is continuously tuned in the range of 0.3 GHz to 3 GHz. This continuously tunable dual-cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser is Laser interferometry and other fields have broad application prospects.

    The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.



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